Here is how the major tractor manufacturers and engine makers will meet the 2011 emissions standards for engines in 174-plus-hp tractors.
FPT Powertrain Technologies
Solution Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) for medium- and heavy-duty engines (greater than 100 hp), and cooled Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) for light-duty engines (less than 100 hp)
Reason Case IH states, “SCR in high-horsepower engines offers the advantages of lower fuel consumption, longer service intervals, and better power response than cooled EGR. This is because SCR allows clean, cool intake air without exhaust gas into the combustion chamber, avoiding the need for a larger cooling system and providing a more complete fuel burn than EGR.”
Performance changes “Because SCR is separate from the main engine function, power and fuel efficiency are not compromised,” Case IH says. “Engine performance improves because SCR reduces emissions in the exhaust stream, allowing the engine to be tuned for performance and fuel efficiency. We are seeing a minimum 10% average operating cost improvement over our Tier 3 engines.”
Service changes Oil change intervals have lengthened to 600 hrs. because exhaust is not recirculated.
Operating costs SCR requires the addition of DEF, commonly used in new farm pickups and on-highway grain trucks and is currently priced about the same as diesel fuel used at a rate of 3 to 5% of diesel fuel. “Taking DEF use into account, we see an average 10% improvement in operating costs over previous models as a result of fuel savings and reduced oil changes,” Case IH states.
AGCO SISU Power diesel
Solution SCR (e3) on high-horsepower tractors (MT600C, DT, MF8600 and Valtra S series)
Reason AGCO was the first agricultural manufacturer to feature e3 selective catalytic reduction clean air technology in tractors. AGCO engineers say they selected SCR technology because it is “the most effective and fuel-efficient method of meeting present and future EPA emissions requirements.” According to AGCO, SCR promises a substantial improvement in fuel economy while reducing emissions. The company states, “E3 technology alone can achieve NOx reductions in excess of 90%.”
Performance changes “E3 technology delivers uncompromised horsepower and torque from a cooler running engine,” AGCO says. “It also delivers up to 20.8% in fuel savings compared with competitive models.”
Service changes Service and maintenance needs of the engine are unaffected. Maintenance of the e3 SCR solution is minimal. The main diesel particulate filter must be changed at every 2 yrs. or 4,500 hrs.
Operating costs DEF is consumed at a rate of approximately 3% of the fuel used. Therefore, for every 100 gal. of fuel used, 3 gal. of DEF/AdBlue will be consumed. DEF can be purchased at any AGCO/MF/Challenger dealership or through a variety of suppliers such as Brenntag in North America. The storage system and filling systems must be designed to assure a temperature range of between 12° and 176°F.
Supplier for Versatile
Solution Cummins will meet the 2011 emissions standards for engines in the 174- to 751-hp band with an integrated Cummins Particulate Filter exhaust after treatment and a cooled EGR system.
Reason Cummins states, “A Cummins Particulate Filter in combination with cooled EGR will achieve the best operating value for our customers with up to 5% better fuel efficiency and no need for DEF.All key technologies are designed and manufactured by Cummins.”
Performance changes “Our Tier 4i engines have demonstrated up to 5% improved fuel efficiency compared to Tier 3, depending on rating and duty cycle,” Cummins says. “Cummins VGT Turbocharger, which combines the benefit of both a small and large turbocharger in a single unit, enhances Tier 4 equipment productivity with faster engine response.”
Service changes An infrequent service will be ash cleaning of the Cummins Particular Filter. The EPA has set minimum intervals for cleaning the filter at 4,500 hrs. for above 173 hp. Cummins expects the filter to reach 5,000 hrs. before ash cleaning is required. The crankcase filter requires a simple filter element change at 2,000-hr. intervals.
Operating costs Overall operating costs for Cummins engines will be lower at Tier 4i compared with Tier 3. Cummins claims, “Up to 5% better fuel efficiency can be achieved without the cost of DEF. This will more than offset the marginal cost increase associated with using ULSD fuel, low ash lube oil and particulate filter cleaning at 5,000 hrs.”
John Deere Power Systems
Solution “John Deere Power Systems will take our proven Tier 3 PowerTech Plus engine platform with cooled EGR and add an exhaust filter, replacing the muffler, to achieve compliance with IT4 (Interim Tier 4) regulations for our 174 hp and above product line,” John Deere states. “Our PowerTech M and PowerTech E 2.4L engines below 75 hp already meet IT4 regulations.”
Reason “We have determined that cooled EGR, combined with an exhaust filter, is the right choice because it is simpler for the operator, field proven and fuel efficient,” the company says.
Performance changes John Deere says, “With our Tier 3 PowerTech Plus engines, John Deere Power Systems achieved best-in-class fuel economy over our Tier 2 engines while maintaining or improving cold-weather starting, transient response time, power bulge, peak torque, and low-speed torque.”
Service changes The oil change interval will be the same or greater than that for Tier 3 engines, up to 500 hrs., depending on the application. Regulations require minimum exhaust filter service intervals of 4,500 hrs. for engines 174 hp and greater and 3,000 hrs. for less than 174 hp. The John Deere exhaust filter design allows for greater service intervals to maximize uptime.
Operating costs John Deere claims that its IT4 engines “will maintain performance, value and single fluid, best-in-class fuel efficiency leadership in the off-highway industry.”
MTU Detroit Diesel
Supplies Mercedes engines to Claas, Krone, Miller Sprayers, and Oxbo
Solution SCR for engines under 750 hp
Reason MTU says it has determined SCR to be the better strategy for controlling emissions on engines of less than 750 hp, especially those used in low-duty-cycle applications. It states, “SCR requires no internal engine changes, since it treats the exhaust after the combustion event. Advantages include increased engine performance, better fuel economy, longer oil change intervals, and no requirement for ultralow-sulfur diesel fuel.”
Performance changes “The increased NOx production is neutralized by the SCR after treatment,” MTU says. “We are finding a 5% increase in fuel economy, which is offset by 2% with the need for DEF. This results in a net fluid decrease of 3% over current Tier 3.”
Service changes Maintenance intervals are unchanged from Tier 3. The Tier 4 engine “allows for longer oil change intervals compared to EGR because inert exhaust is not being recirculated back into the combustion chamber,” MTU says.
Operating costs The only additional operating cost is the cost of DEF, which is used at a rate of approximately 1 gal. to every 25 gal. of diesel fuel and is currently priced about the same as diesel fuel. MTU claims that the “DEF cost is more than offset by improved fuel economy over EGR/DPF.”
Fiat Powertrain Technologies
Solution SCR for machines with engines above 100 hp and cooled EGR for engines below 100 hp
Reason New Holland states that it “has chosen tailor-made technological solutions for every machine based on its individual engineering characteristics, application requirements and to guarantee the lowest operating costs for our customers. SCR system is perfect for high-horsepower products as it offers improved power and torque and even greater fuel efficiency, while CEGR ensures utility and compact tractors retain their compact dimensions.”
Performance changes “SCR technology does not place any additional demands on the cooling package, which means that no power is diverted to cool the exhaust gas,” New Holland says. “The engine’s power is only used for the machine’s principal ‘working’ functions, improving productivity and significantly increasing the Engine Power Management band. Engines benefit from significantly better fuel economy, plus more power and torque.”
Service changes SCR requires the use of AdBlue/DEF, a nontoxic water and urea solution, to neutralize the exhaust emissions and to turn them into harmless water and nitrogen. AdBlue/DEF can be transported and stored similar to other lubricants.
Operating costs “Engines benefit from significantly better fuel economy and more power and torque,” the company states. “The addition of AdBlue/DEF contributes to significant fuel cost savings, even when the initial purchase price is taken into account. The New Holland dealer network will sell the AdBlue/DEF in a variety of container sizes.”
Engine supplier for Claas
Solution Cat Industrial engines will use a cooled exhaust gas NOx reduction system and particulate after treatment to achieve Tier 4 Interim/Stage IIIB emission requirements.
Reason Caterpillar states, “More powerful engine electronics, next-generation fuel systems, the Cat NOx Reduction System and tailored after-treatment technologies are the Acert Technology building blocks that result in reliable, durable engines.”
Performance changes “Cat Tier 4 Interim/Stage IIIB technology engines produce up to 5% improved fuel efficiency compared to Tier 3, depending on applications, rating and operating conditions,” Caterpillar says.
Service changes Oil and filter change service intervals of 250 or 500 hrs. remain the same as those for Tier 3 engines. The Cat DPF is designed for 5,000 hrs. before ash cleaning is necessary. The Clean Emissions Module is designed with a removable center section to allow easy access to the DPF for ash service.
Operating costs The Cat dealer network provides service and support. The parts commonality built into the Tier 4 Interim/Stage IIIB line of engines enables common service tooling and parts stock coverage. “Cat Tier 4 Interim/Stage IIIB technology engines produce up to 5% improved fuel efficiency compared to Tier 3, depending on applications, rating and operating conditions,” Caterpillar says.